Monday, August 19, 2019
A Place to Remember When I was sixteen years of age, my Gram, Aunt Jamie, and I went to Scotland. We visited many places, such as Edinburgh, Sterling, and Dumfries. We also visited Arundel, Windsor, and London in England. The most exciting part of our trip was when we went and saw the house my Grandad born in and the family house. As I looked at those houses, I felt like I was home, I had found the place I was supposed to be. All my life I have known who I was and where I was from, I am Scottish, my Grandad was born in Scotland, so in a way, I am from Scotland as well. The flight to London felt like it took forever, we were all so tired and just wanted to take a shower and go to bed, but we had to get off that plane and get on another going to Scotland. When we finally landed in Scotland, I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe I was actually in a foreign country, I was so excited. The first thing I did when we landed in Scotland was to look through the window, of course what I saw were other airplanes and men running around getting luggage and showing planes to the terminal. After we got all of our luggage and the rental car, we walked outside, as I looked around, I could see so much green in the distance; so many different colors of green. I had never seen so much beauty in one place. The first night we were there, we got lost looking for the bed and breakfast we were staying at that night. We kept driving by it, but we couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t find a way to get to it so we kept driving right by it and then get lost looking for it again. After forty five minutes of looking for the bed and breakfast we finally found it. We were finally able to take showers and then we went out to dinner, we found this cute little pizza place where ... ...cause they all looked the same; they were all painted the same color. When we found it I just stood there in amazement, knowing that my Grandad who was also one of my best friends lived in that house that was right in front of me. I had always dreamed to go to Scotland to see my GrandadÃ¢â¬â¢s house, and when my dream came true, I was amazed. Knowing that I was where I felt I belonged, was the best feeling in the world. All of the scenery, the important places we saw, the beautiful buildings and animals, was a site I will never forget. Being Scottish used to just be cool to me knowing that my Grandad was born in Scotland and that I had Scottish blood in my veins. After I saw the house he was born in, it changed my viewpoints, I felt that Scotland was one of the most beautiful places I knew about, and being apart of that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t something I should take lightly.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Suicide Will Condemn One to Hell Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Suicide is the only simple act that gives man absolute control of his life. Everyone from an early age contemplates and fantasizes with the idea of being able to end their life. Throughout time, this act has become more accepted, and easier to accomplish. Many people today believe there are reasons to justifiably end oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own life. Though, through Christianity, it is found that not only is suicide wrong, but is the only simple act that will condemn one to hell. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Suicide is not really suicide when it deals with children. From childhood, people are tempted with the idea of suicide. Children, from the media, their friends and family are introduced with this idea from an early age. Though, there are not many cases where children commit suicide, there are a few instants that leave survivors puzzled. The difficult part about child suicide is, how old do you have to be to realize what you are doing. If a child does not know what they are doing is wrong, by committing suicide, it is not suicide. When the child does not know what they are doing, then the suicide changes from murder to an accident. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another instance, in which suicide could be justified as not wrong, is when it deals with the mentally unstable. This is also like child suicide, because the insane are not capable of judging right from wrong. No one knows the degree of sanity one needs to be able to decipher their own actions, so this is also completely left up t...
Privatization In Taft, California, with a perimeter of razor wire, armed prison guards, supervise hundreds of medium security level federal inmates. Welcome to one of America's newest and fastest growing trends in the area of corrections. This new phenomenon is termed, The Corporation of Modern Corrections. Faced with an increase in prison overcrowding and aging institutions, court orders demanding immediate reform coupled with a straining budget, mandatory minimum sentences, and the public's attitude toward "getting tough on crime", America's justice system is in need of an overhaul. Thus, government leaders are ready to consider different options to help reduce the strain, while still meeting is legal responsibility to provide services. The option to emerge to the forefront is Prison Privatization - " the transfer of asset's and of production of public goods and services from government to the private sector."1 in other words, private interest is being given the opportunity to help alleviate the strain of taking care of a growing population more economically and efficiently than the government. The expansion of the private sector into the prison system began to generate considerable interest and controversy in the mid - 1980's. Currently, almost all prisons' contract some type of service from the private sector to provide support, such as, construction, medical and religious services. However, the concept of relinquishing controls of adult offenders to profit seeking companies fuels a very controversial and heated debate. Most arguments center on whether private companies can truly provide a more efficient service at a lower cost than public institutions while not sacrificing quality. While others focus on the philoso... ...hn D. The Privatization Decision, Public Ends, Private Means, New York, 1989 (INGLEWOOD PUBLIC LIBRARY) Smith, Phil. Private Prison : Profits of Crime,1993 Fall Issue Covert Action Quarterly. (Internet:http://mediafilter.org/MFF/Prison.html) Logan, Charles. Prison Privatization: Objections and Refutations (Internet:http://www.ucc.uconn.edu/~wwwsoci/fraser.html) Kicenski, Karyl L. The Corporate Prison: The Production of Crime and The Sale of Discipline, 1998 (Internet:http://speech.csun.edu/ben/news/kessay.html) Hunzeker, Donna. Private Cells, Public Prisoners, 1991 State Legislatures (Inglewood Library) Lemov, Penelope. Jailhouse Inc., 1993 Governing Magazine (Inglewood Library) Unknown Author. Assessing the Issue: The Pros and Cons of Prison Privatization. 1996 (Internet:wysiwyg://24/http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/Lobby/6465/assess.html)
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Chantel Hunt MNE 347 Palestinian Studies Bashir Bashir ISLAMS EARLY INTERACTIONS WITH JUDAISM AND CHRISTIANITY Because of its harsh desert environment, the Arabian Peninsula was left relatively unmolested by the several competing empires that swept through the Fertile Crescent just north of it in the early centuries before Islam. At the beginning of the 7th Century, the Byzantine and Sassanid empires were embroiled in a 26-year war for supremacy, which had a lasting cultural impact on the Arabs of the Peninsula eventually leading to the emergence and subsequent explosion of Islam into the monotheistic sphere.The interaction Islam had with existing religions led to a unique monotheism better suited to the Arabs, yet still maintained traditional elements with Judaism and Christianity, even enabling it to fall under the Abrahamic title. Monotheism was initially introduced through trade. According to Jonathon Berkey, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the exchange of people and ideas between Arabs of the int erior and predominantly Aramaic-speaking inhabitants of Syria was, and had been for centuries, a routine element of life. That exchange touched on religious mattersÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (64). Elements of these religions competed and intermingled with existing Arab paganism and traditions, creating a unique take on Ã¢â¬Å"the one GodÃ¢â¬ that was much better suited to the Arabs than the politically-charged imperial baggage of the former traditions. Islam holds many similarities with the religions it sprung from besides its monotheism and devotion to the idea of a Ã¢â¬Å"true God,Ã¢â¬ yet even these similarities come with a unique Arabian flavor. These include a prophet-messenger, a holy book of scripture, and an ancestral link to the Abrahamic line.The idea of a special kind of person able to transcend mortal boundaries to commune with deity and transmit knowledge or specific messages to mankind has been an integral part of the Judeo-Christian experience. There are many prophets throu ghout Torah and Old Testament including Noah, Samuel, and Isaiah. The New Testament continues this tradition with the addition of new messengers from God (though not by the term prophets) such as John the Baptist, Jesus Christ the declared Son of God, and his disciples, the apostles.Islam adds one more prophet to the sceneÃ¢â¬âMuhammad. Muslims view Muhammad as the greatest and last messenger of God. Muhammad's message was similar to the previously accepted prophets: to turn aside from false devotions and to worship the only true God in the right way. Like other Biblical prophets, MuhammadÃ¢â¬â¢s message was initially unpopular towards the masses, necessitating his flight to what became Medina (Esposito History of Islam 8).Despite initial troubles, however, Muhammad gained a considerable following and was able to later turn the tide against his former oppressors, and subdue them in a way no prophet of the earlier traditions was able to do: as a political conqueror (Esposito, Hi story of Islam 8-11). Unifying several Arabian tribes created the beginning of an empire that would bring the Byzantine and Sassanid Empires to their knees and open up the spread of Islam to the whole world. Also significant to each Abrahamic denomination was the creation of a holy book.Each consists of compilations of sacred texts, considered to be the words of God or of his prophets, though the original texts from which our modern ones are comprised of are non-existent today. It is generally assumed by many scholars that each text has likely been through apocryphal revisions and retellings before getting to us in their current state, but many adherents to Jewish and Christian faiths still view their books as the pure transmitted words of God.The holy book of Islam, the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an, is also a compilation of revelations regarded as divine, though unlike the other sacred texts, it is only credited to one Ã¢â¬Å"receiver. Ã¢â¬ According to Muslim tradition, the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an was preserved in both oral and written formats by Muhammad and his secretaries exactly as he had been given them from Allah, and were compiled in precise order of revelation and in their entirety (Esposito, Islam: the Straight Path 137). Yet like its contemporaries, it was not completed in written form while the receiver writer of the revelations lived. The QurÃ¢â¬â¢an was compiled during the reign of MuhammadÃ¢â¬â¢s third successor, Uthman, leaving a window (admittedly a much smaller one than of the Jewish and Christian texts) where possible changes or mistakes in oral or written transmission may have occurred. In addition to a prophet and a holy book, Islam created a third link with the previous traditions giving it a higher sense of legitimacy and authority.Islam claims a direct ancestral link to AbrahamÃ¢â¬âthe great prophet to whom God promised nations of posterity, the land of Canaan and religious stewardship. Judaic and Christian traditions trace their spiritual ancestry t o Abraham through Isaac, AbrahamÃ¢â¬â¢s son born to his legitimate wife, Sara. Islam instead, connects their heritage to Abraham through his first son Ishmael, born to SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s Egyptian handmaid, Hagar. Each separate tradition maintains that their particular son of Abraham was the favored son and heir to both the temporal and divine.There are many other similarities Islam has with its older brother religions, but it is by no means a copy or mere synthesis of them either. While drawn to many aspects of the new religions that had sifted to them from the north, the Arabs had a substantially different religious, political, and economic environment than origins of Judaism and Christianity, making many doctrines and practices of the religions completely foreign and ill-suited to Arab sensibilities.Islam has many similar components with the other two religions making its association with the other religions under Abraham a commonly accepted one. However, the unique political and spi ritual environment of Arabia created unique elements in Islam not to be found anywhere else, and is possibly responsible for its exponential rate it acquired followers. Works Cited Berkey, Jonathan Porter. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 00-1800. New York: Cambridge UP, 2003. Esposito, John L. Islam: the Straight Path. New York: Oxford UP, 1998 Esposito, John L. The Oxford History of Islam. New York: Oxford UP, 1999 *As I could not find the original books to get exact page numbers, I used the page numbers given in our packet of materials instead for those ideas that came from them. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [ 1 ]. QurÃ¢â¬â¢an 47:19. See also Exodus 20:3 in the Bible
Friday, August 16, 2019
Trompenaars vs. Hofstede 1. 2. Introduction Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 2 Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede and Trompenaars Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 3 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Analogies or identities of the cultural dimensions Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 5 Differences of the dimensions Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 7 Advantages and Risks seeing the world a nd cultures with dimensions Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. Effects on practice operation Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 8 Personal meaning and consequences of the dimensions Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 9 2. 1. 2. 2. HofstedesÃ¢â¬â¢ DimensionsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 3 TrompenaarsÃ¢â¬â¢ Dimensions Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â ¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 4 1. Introduction Nowadays a lot of companies operate in a multitude of distinct countries.However, if we do a double take, it is evident that multinational enterprises and their strategies differ from country to country. If not, it might be the case that those companies will fail. For example Wal-Mart opted for entering the Japanese market. Unfortunately, they tried implement the American strategy in Japan. Americans were keen on bargain buys in huge amounts 24 hours a day. Whereas the discount strategy in the USA has been very successful, it had adverse effects in Japan. Japanese people equated low prices to low quality and thus didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to buy at Wal-Mart.Moreover, Japanese werenÃ¢â¬â¢t used to the fact that a store was open 24 hours per day. Such misunderstandings cause huge trouble. For some situations we cannot prepare. However, it would have been important for WalMart to analyze the Japanese culture in depth before starting business there. If we look at everyday life it is safe to say that all people have the problem how to cope with peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship to time, nature and other human beings. The solutions how to get a grip on these problems differ from culture to culture. Consequently, it is important to be aware of the cultural differences of each country.Trompenaars and Hofstede give some propositions how to classify cultures. 2 2. Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede and Trompenaars 2. 1. HofstedesÃ¢â¬â¢ Dimensions Geert Hofstede filtered out 5 dimensions which indicate how people are influenced by their culture especially in the workplace. The first dimension refers to identity. The dimension Collectivism vs. individualism reflects the relationship between an individual and the group. In more individualistic societies the emphasis is put on freedom, personal achievement and individual identity. Consequently, ties in a group (e. g. he family, workgroup) are loose. People manifest a higher incentive for self -initiative and try to take care of themselves. In contrast, collectivistic cultures place great value on the common interest of a group, harmony between members and taking care of each other. There is a clear distinction between inand outsiders. If an outsider takes face of one group member the entire group feels offended and avoids contact with the troublemaker. Secondly, Power Distance deals with hierarchy and the degree of inequality between members of a society which is adopted as a natural state of affairs.In high power distance countries inequality in physical and intellectual capabilities is considered to be normal. Subordinates are in for displaying obedience to the boss. There is a pronounced sense of hierarchy and people enjoying a high status reveal their power. Whereas societies that rank low on power distance play down hierarchy and stress equality. There is no focus on titles and positions and leaders do not exhibit their skills obviously. Masculinity vs. Femininity i s about relationship between gender and work roles. In male-dominated cultures sex roles are sharply differentiated.There is a clear role distribution which suggests itself in the fact that men are superior to women and men normally occupy management positions. Hence, the focus is on achievement, competition and Ã¢â¬ËfightingÃ¢â¬â¢. However, in female oriented cultures genders are less distinguished and both genders play the same role. These cultures stress care, compromise and harmony. The fourth dimension called Uncertainty Avoidance aims at the way people try to get a grip on unpredictable and ambiguous situations. People living in a culture with strong uncertainty avoidance have fear of the unknown.Therefore elaborate rules, regulations, and clear orders exist. Cultures with a low uncertainty avoidance tolerate differences, unanticipated situations and are more open toward change. People make decisions which are subject to individual discretion and which are based on more un iversal rules. Long-Term Orientation vs. Short-Term Orientation relate to the choice between future and present virtue. In other words, HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s last dimension can be seen as an indicator for a societyÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude toward time and tradition. Values associated with Long-Term Orientation are thrift, filial piety and perseverance.Young people should sacrifice their pleasures of their life at their young age for the sake of the benefit of their future. Values associated with Short Term Orientation are respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting one's Ã¢â¬Ëface'. Consequently, this orientation is more oriented toward the past and the present. 3 2. 2. TrompenaarsÃ¢â¬â¢ Dimensions Trompenaars explored how people relate in private, business life and moral conflicts. Afterwards he extracted seven dimensions. The first dimension Universalism vs. Particularism can be prescribed with key words as rules vs. elationships. In universalistic cultures peopl e are supposed to strictly adhere to standards and rules. Consequently, infringing the right (regardless of the reason) is equivalent to undermining morals and should be punished. There are no exceptions. In particularistic societies obligations to the closer surrounding enjoy highest priority. Protecting your members (e. g. family, friends) is more important than observing law. In case of Collectivism vs. Individualism the question arises if people attribute more importance to oneself or to the group.In individualistic cultures there is a clear distinction of individuals within a group. It is common that personal achievement is rewarded and people are motivated to improve their individual performance in order to be promoted. Representatives of a group or a company are allowed to make binding decisions on their own. In collectivistic cultures people identify themselves with the group. High achievement of one person is put down to the good performance of the entire group and thus suc cess is shared within the group. Only the whole team or at least a certain number of members make decisions and take responsibility.The dimension Neutral vs. Affective deals with the range of expressed feelings. Neutral societies avoid to demonstrate feelings and strong gestures and hence try to display controlled behavior. If someone reveals anger or aggression this behavior is tantamount to unprofessionalism. Discussions are lead on a factual level. However, in affective cultures expression of feelings either verbally or nonverbally is normal. People expect direct emotional answers and appreciate vital and animated expressions. In the fourth place, Diffuse vs.Specific relates to the strategies and approaches for getting to know each other. People living in a specific/low context culture pursue a purpose in relating with another person, thus prefer direct and to the point communication. People clearly distinguish between private and business life e. g. titles are used in the job wo rld not in private life. As the private sphere is relatively small only few people take part in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s private life. In diffuse/high context cultures every life space permeates all others which means that everything is connected to everything.Even employers can take an active part of the workerÃ¢â¬â¢s private life. Achievement vs. Ascription refers to the accord of status. Achieved status is equivalent to success because of taking action. Managers are of different age and gender as they have reached the position due to performance, knowledge and skills. Ascribed status represents the opposite side. High status does not have to be justified. It is rather independent of task or specific function. Often external factors like age, gender, connections, education and family background decide on the status.The sixth dimension Sequential vs. Synchronic deals with time management. In synchronic cultures the emphasis is on the number of activities taking place in parallel. People plac e great value on the targets and not on the way and sequence an objective will be reached. Consequently, deadlines are untypical as the schedule is open for unplanned incidents. In general, relationship is more important than tight schedules. In sequential societies events which are often slated in a plan pass step by step. Tight order, punctuality and deadlines are of paramount importance.As a result, people are unable to act in turbulent environments and dislike unanticipated situations. Relationships serve as instruments and thus are inferior to schedules. 4 Last but not least the dimension Internal Control vs. External Control is about humanÃ¢â¬â¢s relation to nature. This can be transcended to humanÃ¢â¬â¢s relation to an organization, government and the market. In internal controlled cultures people have the conviction to be able to control their environment even if they have to use aggressiveness. Nature is equivalent to a complex machine which can be controlled if someone could develop an expertise.Therefore success and failure should be put down to the individual endeavors rather than to environment and general-set up. However, in external controlled societies environment is taken more into account because people consider themselves to be a part of nature. As external forces can strongly influence oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life people try to be in harmony with their environment. They adapt to their surroundings, e. g. to customers, to their colleagues or they react flexibly to market forces. Afterwards they try to react in an appropriate way. 3.Analogies or identities of the cultural dimensions Trompenaars and Hofstede filtered out the same dimension Individualism vs. Collectivism. These ideologies are the platform for political and economic systems. China is a textbook example for a collectivistic country whereas the United States represent an individualistic country. In China Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬â¢ occupies center stage and members of a group experience improvemen t of their life by taking care of each other and by maintaining harmony. Consequently, pay-for-performance of a single person is rejected in collectivistic cultures.Bonus payment to one person does not reflect the fact that the whole group contributes to success of each single group member. Reward of a single person would only destroy harmony within the group and would demotivate essential teamwork. However, in the US people rather concentrate on their own life. Each person takes the responsibility to improve oneÃ¢â¬â¢s situation by working hard on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own. Bonus payment stimulates the propensity to perform better and to stand out against workmates. Trompenaars dimension Universalism vs. Particularism goes hand in hand with Individualism vs. Collectivism.Americans being universalists and individualists emphasize equal treatment of everyone according to the law. E. g. If the best friend killed someone the universalist giving testimony would tell the truth in order to adher e to the law. The relationship to the friend would be neglected just to restore order as killing someone is immoral. As opposed to this, in China relationship is superior to law. The Chinese friend would lie to protect the friend who is in real trouble. The dimension Specific vs. Diffuse reveals some analogies with regard to the dimension Individualism vs. Collectivism.In specific countries or low context countries, e. g. America, business is done even if both parties havenÃ¢â¬â¢t established a relationship. Long communication is not necessary as the contract contains every little detail. This demonstrates that the emphasis is put on the task and on the achievement of the individual representing the company rather than on the relationship. Whereas in China companies would only strike a deal if a relationship was established successfully. In diffuse/high context cultures privacy sphere is only marginal and confidence decides on business operation.In other words, relationship and gr oup orientedness is superior to task. 5 Individualism vs. Collectivism also correlates with Short-Term-orientation/Long-Termorientation. In East-Asian countries, e. g. China, Hong Kong, Taiwan the relationship between workers and management in a company is vital. This fact can be put down to Confucianism and the concept of reciprocal obligation. Bosses protect their workers and offer them a life-time employment. In return, their subordinates are loyal and respectful. Everyone (the whole group) is responsible to contribute to the long-lasting success in the company.In Western countries, e. g. the United States people are not keen on life-time employment. They want to change their job if they have an opportunity for a better career. Managers siphon off high bonus (short term) payments if the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profits and numbers in the last business year are excellent. As a result, managers are not interested in sustainability but in short-term profit. Individualism vs. Collectivism in fluences Trompenaars dimension Internal Control/External Control. The political system collectivism goes hand in hand with the economic system command economy.Even if China is a mixed economy government controls life of its citizens and of each individual e. g. via censorship. Consequently, Chinese people are externalistic as government (metaphor for environment) actively shapes their lives and people havenÃ¢â¬â¢t had control over government. Contrary to this, Germans living in individualism and market economy are internalistic. Companies can function as lobbyists and can actively influence governmental activities. Another two dimensions which have similarities are HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s Power Distance and Trompenaars Achievement vs. Ascription.The Indian Caste system reflects High Power Distance. If someone was born into the lowest group (Shudra) of the caste system (let alone the Untouchables) this person will always belong to this caste. Shudras have to accept the fact that they wil l always be inferior to people belonging to the upper castes. The caste determines the quality of life including the profession. A Brahmin, belonging to the highest caste, will always be respected and occupies the most powerful standing in society. This fact equates with Ascription as the Indian cadre originates from a renowned family background and has normally reached a decent age.Subordinates are loyal and respectful as they can only survive with the help of the upper castes and thus are highly dependent on them. Hence, superiors dictate the conditions and take responsibility for everything. The hierarchy within the caste system is reflected in a steep hierarchy in companies and institutions. Germany being a Low Power Distance country can be considered as the opposite. Family background could help to find a job but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t decide on the career track of a person. If someone distinguishes oneself from the mass because of excellent performance and great talent this person wil l probably climb up the career ladder.This example can be clearly associated with Trompenaars dimension achievement. It is also very important to remark that both staff and bosses should be treated almost equally as the roles and positions can be changed very fast due to achievement. Even if some analogies match with my example this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that the two dimensions compared have similarities in all areas and situations. I extracted some points of intersection. 6 4. Differences of the dimensions The other dimensions not mentioned in the prior passage may sometimes have minor similarities which are notwithstanding outweighed by the differences of their meanings.I deliberately turned my back on the analogies between the dimensions of the same author. Geert Hofstede concentrated on the subject how cultural differences influence organization, management and relationship between people whereas Trompenaars shed some light on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship to time, nature and other human beings. Trompenaars neglected the topic gender which deals with a substantial question how the roles in the family are defined. This also manifests itself in the management structure of a company. In female oriented cultures, e. g. n Scandinavian countries men go on parental leave and women equally occupy leading positions. Whereas in a male- oriented culture like Germany a dog-eats-dog society has been generated, in Norway a woman striving for her own benefit and thus threatening cooperation and harmony will be looked down upon. Trompenaars did not deal with search for Truth. HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s Uncertainty Avoidance indicates how people try to grapple with unstructured situations. United States e. g. ranking low on Uncertainty Avoidance are not risk averse. The current financial crisis was triggered by hazardous behavior.American banks granted credits to people who couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t afford them. Germany ranking high on the uncertainty avoidance is often criticized for its burea ucracy. Elaborate rules and regulations should avoid uncertainty, can however cause a lot of paper work. One can also find some topics Hofstede did not have a focus on. Firstly, Hofstede did not consider the range of feelings expressed (neutral vs. emotional) which of course determine communication and behavior of people. Secondly, Hofstede did not describe the dimension dealing with range of involvement (diffuse vs. specific).Last but not least Hofstede did not mention explicitly time management (sequential vs. synchronic). 5. Advantages and Risks seeing the world and cultures with dimensions It is safe to say that dimensions can help people (that have never been to a certain country) to become more sensitive for intercultural understanding. Not until people are aware of idiosyncrasies of their own culture they can easier get to know other cultures. If someone (e. g. an expatriate) is undetermined in which country to go dimensions can help to get a first impression and contain the number of possible destinations depending on the criteria.After having chosen a country the expatriate should acquire theoretical knowledge about important symbols, rituals and common manners. Being abroad he/she can try to apply dimensions practically especially during the first days in the new surrounding as the person does not know how to behave properly. Most notably at the first meeting people need a first point of orientation to avoid big no goÃ¢â¬â¢s. 7 However, getting to know other cultures means learning by doing and trial by error. According to the iceberg model visible and expected occurrences account for only 10%. Consequently, 90% of our experiences with other cultures happen unsuspectedly.ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why we should not overestimate and read too much into dimensions. A risk which arises when applying dimensions is to misunderstand and misuse them. The peculiarity of a dimension is highly dependent on the situation and on the counterpartÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. Dimensi ons do not reflect individual cultural preferences but convey an average and general behavior of the population living in a culture. An adverse effect is also that stereotypes are created and reinforced. Another problem point is that Hofstede carried out his studies (which serve as basis for the dimensions) at the end of the 60s.These studies are only a snapshot and did not take into consideration that culture evolves over time. Especially changes in economic or political environment, e. g. the demise of Communism in Eastern Europe or globalization, heavily affect transformation of cultures. Apart from that, both authors assumed that there is a one-to-one correspondence between culture and nation state which is sometimes not the case. In some countries, e. g. Canada, more than one culture can be found. There are even major differences of behavior between regions of a country. 6.Effects on practice operation Before going abroad expatriates should grasp how much preparation is require d to cope with the difference between the own and the foreign culture. Even if an expatriate cannot prepare for the unexpected situations abroad preparation should lead to willingness of flexibility and adaption while interacting with foreigners. However, an expatriate should know the future task in the foreign country which indicates the role and needed appearance of the expatriate. This depends on the target and the way of the company how to expand internationally.If a company opts for setting-up a new subsidiary abroad, the so called greenfield start, optimally a group of expatriates is sent to a foreign country. The task of the expatriates is to find out whether the strategy and the culture of the company can be reconciled with the foreign culture. They experience intensively foreign norms and values and try to recruit suitable locals in order to build up the new plant together. The difficulty is to decide if it is worthwile to establish a company in this country. It is evident that this decision should not be made on the basis of the dimensions.Secondly, the foreign members should be conscious of the fact that national values and norms have to be brought in line with the native corporate culture. This will only happen if the expatriates and the foreign workers could successfully build confidence so that the foreigners feel also loyal to a foreign company. My initial example with Wal-Mart showed that the company failed to apply a right strategy. If a company plans an acquisition with a foreign country expatriates should first analyze the business culture of the own and the future company. Moreover, expatriates should consider also the foreign culture!There is a high potential of conflicts as normally the managers of the foreign company are made redundant and are superseded by expatriates. The question is if those expatriates will be accepted by the national workers and if they are capable of doing successfully business in the foreign surrounding. 8 Irrespe ctive of the distinct possibilities to enter a foreign market intercultural sensitivity (both of the own and the foreign country) is the be-all and end-all. Therefore it is of paramount importance to go abroad as prepared and unprejudiced as possible.If expatriates succeed internalizing these facts they can close the distance gap between two companies operating in distinct countries. 7. Personal meaning and consequences of the dimensions My next job abroad will be as an intern not as an expatriate. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why I will refer to my internship in China. Generally speaking it would be easier for me to do my internship in countries where I can speak the language (German, English, French, Polish, Spanish). It is obvious that mainly Western countries are involved (e. g. America, European countries). All of them embrace democracy and in large part stress individualism. The frameÃ¢â¬â¢ would be alike and I could concentrate on concept of time, privacy, and way of life. However, in cou ntries were political and economic systems are at odds with democracy almost everything is different like in China. Dimensions confirm this statement. I deliberately chose a country which is unfamiliar to me as this poses a considerable challenge. The problem point is that I am permanently influenced by Western media. This leads to the fact that my subconsciousness would like to dictate that the opposite culture is different and thus Ã¢â¬ËwrongÃ¢â¬â¢.I personally do not think that the other culture is Ã¢â¬ËwrongÃ¢â¬â¢. I am more afraid of putting my foot in it in momentous situations. Firstly, I am used to sharing my experiences with others and of being in a group, but in a smaller one. The size of the group (especially the quantity of people on the street) will be a change. Secondly, I am used to voicing my opinion freely and saying Ã¢â¬Ëyes or noÃ¢â¬â¢ even in team work. This will not be possible anymore as I should not take someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s face and indirectly the fac e of the group. I should get used to going around in circles particularly during discussions.Apart from that it is normal for me to solve problems when they arise. However, I have to adapt the fact that I should circumvent it. Ignoring these factors could lead to tensions which would have detrimental effects on the relationship between the staff and me. I am dependent on their explanation! Even if I think that in a special case the Ã¢â¬ËGermanÃ¢â¬â¢ way of doing it would be more appropriate and efficient these thoughts should not prevail! My individual target and opinion should not be on top anymore! In general, I am a optimistic person and I like it to smile.In China people smile even if they are angry. It will be a challenge for me to estimate the feelings correctly and to deal with it. Also the perception of time and structure pose risks to me as I will certainly be confused if deadlines are not met and order is neglected. These are only few situations and points which could cause trouble and uncertainty. My examples reflect some of the dimensions, e. g. individualism vs. collectivism, diffuse vs. specific, uncertainty avoidance,Ã¢â¬ ¦ Despite everything I look forward to my experience abroad and consider this seminar paper as a minor part of my preparation. 9
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Organizational behavior comes into play to aid management in enhancing their understanding of human behavior within organizations to better communicate, allocate resources, delegate tasks, plan, organize, direct, and control work activities. The main purpose of understanding organizational behavior is to increase leadership effectiveness, motivate workers, and inspire them to work toward a common objective. Although there are many leadership approaches, we will focus on the situational leadership approach. We will analyze the purpose, strengths and weaknesses of the situational leadership approach, and provide an example of how it can be applied to real situations. Situational Leadership Approach As it name suggests, the situational leadership approach states that leaders should use different approaches as situations change. In short, leaders should be flexible, embrace change as it comes, and be capable of adapting to it. The situational leadership approach is a model that was developed by Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey in 1972. The theory states that leaders should match their leadership style to the maturity of followers and to the specific tasks on hand (Lerstrom, 2008). As people within organizations acquire more experience and become more knowledgeable about their job, leaders will need to adapt new leadership styles to keep these people motivated. According to May (2013) the core concept of the situational leadership approach is that Ã¢â¬Å"one size does not fit allÃ¢â¬ . The best leaders are not only those who have a vision, but Ã¢â¬Å"the most successful leaders are the ones who are able to adapt their leadership styles across a broad range of varying maturity levels readily present within the average organization (May, 2013). Ã¢â¬ Moreover, using the situational leadership approach suggests that leaders use a mix of other leadership approaches to be effective. According to Phatak (2012), Ã¢â¬Å"The philosophy of a leader should be flexible enough to adapt to situations and changing times. We need a mixture of transactional and transformational leadership techniques to get the job done. The basic idea behind this theory is that one must adapt strategy with changing conditions. Ã¢â¬ Strengths As mentioned earlier, situational leadership allows for more flexibility. As the world evolves, organizations have to make adjustments to survive. Tomasco (2013) states that with the situational leadership approach, leaders get the opportunity to adapt their leadership style to their followersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Consequently, as leaders effectively match their leadership style to situations and followersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs, work activities will run smoothly, interactions will be more successful, relationships will be built up, and followers will achieve optimum performance. Weaknesses Although the situational leadership approach appears to be the best course of action due to its flexibility, it has weaknesses that one cannot ignore. Phatak (2012) explains that constantly changing strategies with time, a leader will find it difficult to implement new strategies on the go. A long term vision may elude him due to constant changes. Ã¢â¬ Further, Wile (2013) identifies four weaknesses of the situational leadership approach which are confusion, leadership or management, outside factors, and perception. Indeed, followers may become confused as leaders change a newly implemented leadership strategy as a result of changing conditions. The situational leadership approach is often misconstrued with a management strategy to lead employees to achieve better outcomes. One cannot downplay the impact external factors have on organizations and organizational behavior. Leaders should demonstrate their ability to understand the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s external environment and to assess followersÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior to implement a leadership approach that will work. Finally, people within organizations have different perceptions and react differently in similar situations. Hence, the situational leadership approach may not give accurate predictions of followersÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior. Situational Leadership Approach in Real Life Alan Lerstrom from Luther College did a case study using the situational leadership approach in which he demonstrated how academic advisors can alter their leadership style based on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ maturity as they advance higher in their studies. Lerstrom applied the Hersey and BlanchardÃ¢â¬â¢s model of situational leadership in the case study. The model suggests that effective leaders will adjust their leadership styles in accordance with changing situations and followersÃ¢â¬â¢ maturity. According to Lerstrom (2008), Jay, the student in the case study began showing signs of maturity as he better understood the major he wanted to pursue and classes he needed to enroll in. Also, Jay became more confident about his abilities, understood the requirements associated with his major, and was more willing to communicate with the advisor. Ã¢â¬Å"Situational leadership provide theoretical and practical tools that help advisors in understanding changes in the readiness levels of their students, and it suggests patterns for relating to students (Lerstrom, 2008, p. 7). Ã¢â¬ Conclusion Situational leadership is the approach that states that leaders must be flexible enough to adapt their leadership styles to changing situations, to specific tasks, and to organizational behavior. This study showed that although the situational leadership approach yields positive outcomes it has weaknesses. Thus, it is important to leverage the strengths of the approach to alleviate its weaknesses. For increased effectiveness, leaders will need to use organizational behavior research methods to better understand the situations at hand, their followersÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions, and the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s internal and external environments. This method will provide guidance in applying the appropriate leadership style. References Lerstrom, A. C. Advising Jay: A Case Study Using a Situational Leadership Approach. NACADA Journal; Fall2008, Vol. 28 Issue 2, p21-27, 7p May, R. (2013). Basics of the Situational Leadership Model. Retrieved from http://www. businessdictionary. com/article/724/basics-of-the-situational-leade rship-model/ Phatak, O. (June 20, 2012). Pros and Cons of Leadership Theories.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Information strategy is an integral part of a business plan to improve the computer/communications architectures, hardware, software, peripherals, and training. The mentioned changes are targeted at refining business operations (Betz, 396). Accordingly, Timberlodge has benefited from restructuring of the technical aspect specifically its software/hardware architectures. Information strategy (IS) of Timberlodge should yield competitive advantage at a lower cost and higher profitability. IS is composed of three components namely information system (IS) strategy, information technology (IT) strategy, and information management (IM) strategy. In TimberlodgeÃ¢â¬â¢s case study, they are looking to adapt the same innovative and technological approach into the product area of figurines based on the production driven by demand. The said aim is considered to be the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s IS Strategy. Given the long business and supplier relationship of Timberlodge and Potterville, the company can meet halfway by integrating the new automated production processing system in their existing factory at Potterville. See more: Homeless satire essay In this way, the company and its highly skilled, experienced, and loyal workforce at Potterville that makes up the IM strategy. The company can make use of the same tool called KAPS AssociatesÃ¢â¬â¢ Systems Planning and Analytical Tool (SPLAT) as its IT strategy. Timberlodge can continue to achieve higher production through efficient, automated production system by integrating the new information technology into the traditional set up. The possible adverse publicity of the closure of its factory in Potterville can be avoided through adapting the new technology and retraining of the staff in Potterville. Timberlodge should also consider their loyalty and long standing job employment with the company. While these people are highly skilled, the new automated system requires low skilled people. Thus, workers must be re-assessed and rehired based on their skills.